Solid state battery in its simplest sense is a technology of battery. It is a product of technological breakthrough in terms of exploiting the potential of batteries. This started from the lithium-ion ones which is part of our everyday lives such as phones and laptops.
Then, this Lithium-ion based battery hit some limitations and didn’t get a whole lot better in terms of density and life cycles. These limitations were answered by the development of Solid-State battery.
How do solid state batteries work?
In order to understand how Solid-state battery works, let us talk about battery in general. All batteries are comprised of electrode where the actual energy is connected to an anode and a cathode.
Anode is the negative terminal and the cathode is the positive one. A separator divides them. This is a layer which keeps the two from contacting and short circuiting. When the batteries are used, electrons break free from the lithium and transfers to the electrode through a cable. Simultaneously in the process, the lithium-ion is free to move though the separator, thus, allowing this transfer.
There has to be an electrolyte and in today’s battery. We have a liquid or gel electrolyte. This electrolyte allows the transfer though the separator and from anode to the cathode and vice versa.
While the liquid electrolyte has some great advantages in terms of design, the problem is that the liquid electrolyte is really dangerous and highly flammable. Cellular phones caught in fire is probably because of the electrolyte.
Another issue with electrolyte is the formation of dendrites which may cause fire and short circuit. The answer to this problem is the Solid- state battery, it ditches the liquid electrolyte in favor of the solid-state electrolyte. This solid-state electrolyte acts as both the separator and electrolyte, thus, increasing the amount of volume available for anode and cathode.
Why solid-state batteries are better?
Solid-state batteries are better. They have advantages over lithium batteries and they have functions which lithium batteries do not have. Solid-state batteries are safer unlike the others which are flammable at higher temperature.
Solid-state batteries can also be charged faster than any other batteries, and they can hold and store higher amount of energy. This is the reason why in an electric vehicle, it is advisable to use solid-state battery rather than any other.
Solid-state batteries carry more energy. Taking into consideration its relative weight, solid-state batteries can carry a greater amount of energy, thus, saving space and weight. This is why it would be better to have it in vehicle.
They, likewise, have solid electrolyte which is smaller in size compared with other batteries. This makes it more superior than others since such solid-sate batteries will offer the same output of power as that of those batteries which are of larger sizes.
Solid-state batteries has eliminated the use of liquid electrolyte. It so happens that this is the cause of minor explosions on account of heat. Hence, they are safer compared with batteries using liquid electrolyte.
Solid state batteries use solid electrolytes instead of liquid ones. This is an important distinction because solid electrolytes generally provide greater conductivity, which means that more energy can be stored in the same space. In addition, they’re less volatile than liquid electrolytes and don’t pose the same fire risk in case of thermal runaway.–Techniquehome
What is a solid-state battery made of?
Basically, the composition of solid-state battery is almost the same with liquid-ion battery. Solid-state battery differs only in the sense that its separator is solid rather than being a liquid one. Solid-state batteries are composed of ceramics such as lithium orthosilicate, glass, sulfides and many more.
A solid-state battery is a rechargeable battery that uses solid electrolytes instead of the liquid variety used in traditional lithium-ion batteries. This enables the battery to be lighter, longer-lasting, and more environmentally friendly.
Solid state batteries are used in everything from cell phones to automobiles and provide energy storage for a wide range of electronics and vehicles. The electrolytes used in solid state batteries are typically glass, ceramic or plastic based.–Techniquehome
These materials can be produced at room temperature rather than requiring high heat like traditional liquid electrolytes. The solid state electrolytes are also considered safer because they don’t require flammable anhydrous organic solvents, which can catch fire or explode if they come into contact with the nickel electrodes in traditional lithium-ion batteries.
Are Solid state batteries the future?
Solid-state batteries being a new technology would surely have a great impact in the future. However, this technology is not yet complete and its mass production has not yet been available in the market.
One of the issues this battery has is the resources for its creation. Thus, until researchers answer this issue, we will have to wait for this technology to bulldoze our market.
On the other hand, as we all know and experience, there is a rapid development of technology, may it be in any aspect. related or otherwise. People and experts do not stop to develop or create things for their benefit and of the consuming public.
Given that there is a continuous research and study in this technology, it is most likely that in the near future, the issues solid-state batteries have will be filled and remedied, and this will be within the reach of everyone.
As of now, only manufactures of electric vehicle are focusing on this type of technology. Nonetheless, when other companies start to look into this, it will surely expedite its development.
Disadvantages of solid-state batteries
One of the common disadvantages of solid-state batteries are its production. Since these batteries are a new technology, its creation, manufacture, and production are difficult in large scale.
Being an advent technology, the knowledge for the batteries creation is not common to many manufactures. Thus, it cannot be easily created. Researchers are still under the study of this technology in order to create an effective battery that would fill the gaps of liquid state batteries.
Researchers are looking into some other features such as high conductivity, sufficient mechanical strength, prevention of lithium dendrite penetration, and low-cost raw resources.
In sum, it can be said that solid-state batteries’ technology is still at a novice stage since there are still matters being tested and experimented in relation to its mass viability.
Unlike, the liquid-state batteries which mass production can be seen all over the world In addition, the cost is not that much compared with solid-state batteries.
Many efforts are being exerted to the creation of solid-state batteries; therefore, it can be said in the near future it will be completed.
Advantages of solid-state batteries discuss
As discussed above, solid batteries, being a new technology, have also few advantages. The common ones are the fact that they are safer, and the ability to carry a great amount of energy despite being in a small size.
Solid-state batteries have solid electrolyte which is smaller in size compared with other batteries. This makes it better because it offers the same output of power as that of those batteries which of larger sizes.
Solid-state batteries have eliminated the use of liquid electrolyte which is the cause of minor explosions due to heat. Making it safer compared with batteries using liquid electrolyte.
Solid State batteries versus Lithium
Lithium batteries are the batteries we can find in android phones, laptops, and other gadgets. They are constructed with a liquid electrolyte inside it. This liquid electrolyte added weight to the battery and is flammable at high temperature.
Several batteries are linked together in order to create a sufficient amount of energy and this is reason why it is heavy. Like any other batteries, this one also needs to be recharged. Overtime and as part of wear and tear, this type of battery will eventually degrade its capacity and ability to reach peak charging.
Solid state batteries do not use liquid electrolyte. It replaces the liquid electrolyte with the solid state one. Its structure is actually the same as that of the lithium battery, the only difference is the solid electrolyte.
By using the solid electrolyte, this type can be much denser and compact. The construction pf solid-state batteries, likewise, means that they don’t need all of the monitoring, control, and cooling systems that lithium-ion batteries need to function properly.
What are the solid state battery materials?
As mentioned earlier, the composition of solid-state battery is almost the same with liquid-ion battery. Solid-state battery differs only in the sense that its separator is solid rather than being a liquid one.
Solid-state batteries are composed of ceramics such as lithium orthosilicate, and glass, sulfides, among others. The materials that can be found in the solid state battery is quite similar with that of the lithium battery. Nevertheless, these materials may change given that solid state batteries are still under study
In sum, Solid-state batteries are better than the any other type of batteries given that it is a new technology and has features which other batteries do not have. Solid-state batteries also promise to be safer and more durable over the long run.
Batteries are exposed to heat when they are in use. With this, it may cause short circuit or even fire, since the lithium batteries uses liquid electrolyte. Increase in temperature also can cause malfunctions in lithium batteries.
Solid state batteries replacing the liquid electrolyte, erased this type of problem. The separator that sold state batteries use are not flammable and safe for every users of this type of battery.
Solid-state batteries are now still under research and further development. Although this would have a great impact in the future, still, further studies are required for its production and to fill minor issues accompanying their creation.